Difference Between Jigs and Fixtures

In this article we will learn about the difference between jigs and fixtures. These are the work holding and tool guiding devices used almost in every manufacturing industry. It is used to increase the productivity of the various parts produce in the industries. In this post I will try to focus on all the major differences among them.

Difference Between Jigs and Fixtures

Difference Between Jigs and Fixtures

What are Jigs?

Jigs are the work holding device which holds, supports and locate the workpiece and guides tools to perform a specific operation. In other words we can say that, jigs are the device which is used for both purposes of holding the workpiece and guiding the tool.
  • It is a tool which is used to control the location and motion of the tool during the operations.
  • Jigs main purpose is to provide repeatability, accuracy and interchangeability in the manufacturing of products.
  • It is used in the unidimensional machining i.e drilling, taping, reaming etc.
  • Jigs are found to be light in weight and have complex designing.
  • In jigs, gauge blocks are not necessary and the cost of jigs is higher.
  • They are the special tools particularly used in drilling, reaming, tapping and boring Operations.
  • Jigs are not fixed to the machine table until a big operation is not required to perform.

What are Fixtures?


Fixtures are the work holding device which holds, supports and locate the workpiece but not guides the cutting tool to perform a specific operation. In other words the fixtures are only the work holding device that holds, supports and locate the workpiece in desried position  to perform any operation.
  • The main purpose of the fixtures is to hold and locate the workpiece during any machining operation in the industries. And to  provide repeatability, accuracy and interchangeability in the manufacturing of products.
  • It is used in multidimensional machining i.e. milling, grinding, turning etc.
  • Fixtures are found to be heavy in weight and have less complex designing.
  • In fixtures, gauge blocks may be provided for effective handling and the cost of fixtures is not so high.
  • Fixtures are specific tools used particularly in milling machine, shapers and slotting machine.
  • Fixtures are fixed to the machine table.

Difference Between Jigs and Fixtures in Tabular Form:


The various difference between jigs and fixtures in the tabular form are given below:

S.no
Jigs
Fixtures


1.
It is a work holding device that holds, supports and locates the workpiece and guides the cutting tool for a specific
operation.
It is a work holding device that holds, supports and locates the workpiece for a specific operation but does not guide the cutting tool
2.
jigs are used in unidimensional machining i.e. drilling,reaming,
tapping, etc
fixtures are used in multidimensional machining i.e. milling,turning,grinding,etc .
3.
Jigs are light in weight.
Fixtures are rigid and bulky.
4.
Gauge blocks are not necessary.
Gauge blocks may be provided for effective handling.

5.
The jigs are special tools particularly used in drilling, reaming, tapping and boring operation.
Fixtures are specific tools used
particularly in milling machine, shapers and slotting machine
6.
Usually it is not fixed to the machine table.
It is fixed to the machine table.
7.
Its cost is more.
Its cost is less as compared with the jig.
8.
Their designing is complex.
Their designing is less complex.

 Summary of Difference Between Jigs and Fixtures.

  • Jigs are the device which is used to holds, supports and locate the workpiece and it guides the cutting tool for a specific operation. Fixtures are the device which is used to hold, support and locate the workpiece and they don’t guide the cutting tool.
  • Jigs are used in unidimensional machining whereas fixtures are used in multidimensional machining.
  • In jigs, gauge blocks is not necessary. In fixtures gauge blocks may provided for effective handling.
  • Jigs are light in weight as compared with the fixtures.
  • The cost of jigs is higher when it is compared with the fixtures.
  • The jigs designing is complex where as fixtures designing is less complex.
  • Jigs are not fitted to the machine table but fixtures are fitted.

This is all about the difference between jigs and fixtures. If you find anything missing or incorrect than don’t forget to comment us. And if you find this article informative than share it.







Types of Support in Structures

In this article you will learn about different types of support used in structure. There are basically three types of support and these are roller, pinned and fixed support. There is a fourth support also called as simple support, it is generally not used in structures. Every support has its own field of application. Supports are used in structures to provide it stability and strength.

The various types of supports that are used in structures are:

1. Roller Support
2. Fixed Support
3. Pinned Support &
4. Simple Support

Roller Support

Roller Support


It is a support which is free to rotate and translate along the surface on which they rest. The surface on which the roller supports are install may be horizontal, vertical and inclined to any angle.

  • The roller supports has only one reaction, this reaction acts perpendicular to the surface and away from it. The reaction offered by the roller support is shown in the figure given above.
  • The roller supports are unable to resists the lateral loads (the lateral loads are the live loads whose main components are horizontal forces). They resist only vertical loads.
  • The best example of roller support is the roller skates. The roller skates resist the vertical loads of the persons standing on it. When the lateral loads are applied by the persons, then it starts translating. The translation is due to its inability to resists the lateral loads.

Pinned Support

Pinned Support


It is a types of support which resist the horizontal and vertical loads but are unable to resists the moment.

  • The pinned support has two support reactions and these are vertical and horizontal reactions. It allows the structural member to rotate but does not allow translating in any direction. The pinned support allows the rotation only in one direction and resists the rotation in any other direction.
  • The reactions of the pinned support are shown in the figure given above.
  • The pinned support is also known as hinge support.
  • The best example where we can see the pinned support is the doors and windows of our houses and our knee joint. Here the rotation happens in one direction but the translation motion is restricted.

Fixed Support

Fixed Support


It is a support which is capable of resisting all types of loads i.e. horizontal, vertical as well as moments. The fixed support does not allow the rotation and translation motion to the structural members.

  • The fixed support is also called as rigid support. 
  • The reactions acting in the fixed support is shown in the figure given above.
  • A flagpole fixed in the concrete base is the best example of fixed support. The other examples of the fixed support are electric pole in the streets, a bracket on the wall, and all the riveted and welded joints in the steel etc.
  • It provides the greater stability to the structure as compared with all other supports.

Simple Support

Simple support


The simple support is used where the structural member has to rest on the external structure. These types of support are not used widely in daily life. It is similar to the roller support. 

  • The simple supports resist only vertical forces or loads but not horizontal forces.
  • A pan of wood resting on two concrete blocks is the best example of a simple support.

Summary of Different Types of Support in Tabular Form

Types of support

This is all about various types of support such as roller, pinned, fixed and simple support. If you find anything missing or incorrect than comment us. And if you find this article useful than share it.

Difference Between Bolt and Screw

In this article we will learn about the difference between bolt and screw. Almost in every parts that we see around us, whether it is your laptop, mobile, car, motorcycle and a giant machine like aeroplane, tanks, rockets etc. all are made by bolts and screws. We all are familiar with the bolts and screws, we have also used them in our daily life but we don’t know the exact difference between them. So let's learn about the differences.

Difference Between Bolt and Screw



Difference Between Bolt and screw


S.no.
Bolt
Screw
1.
A bolt is an externally threaded fastener designed for insertion through holes in assembled parts, and is normally intended to be tightened or released by torquing a nut.
A screw is an externally threaded fastener capable of being inserted into holes in assembled parts, of mating with a preformed internal thread or forming its own thread, and of being tightened or released by torquing the head.
2.
The bolts have generally uniform cross section.
 The screws generally have non uniform cross section.
3.
The bolts are always used with the nuts.
It is not used with the nuts but used alone.
4.
The threads on the bolts are spiral in structure.
The threads on the screw are helical in structure.
5.
It does not have tapered shank.
It has  tapered or pointed  shank.
6.
Bolts mostly requires wrenches and spanners for the tightening and loosening purposes.
The screw requires mostly screw drivers for the tightening and loosening purposes.
7.
The parts that are joined together with bolts have greater strength than screw
The parts joined together with the screw have less strength than bolt.
8.
It is more reliable.
It is less reliable.
9.
They apply compression on the parts that they join.
They don’t apply compression on the parts that they join.
10.
The parts that are to be joined with the bolts must have holes for its insertion.
Holes may or may not be required in the parts which are to be joined with the screws. In most of the cases it is directly screwed into the parts to be joined.
11.
The bolts are found in smaller as well as in large sizes.
The screw sizes are smaller or medium. They are not found in much larger sizes.
12.
The examples of bolts are: Anchor bolt, Carriage bolt, Elevator bolt, Flange bolt, Hanger bolt, Hexagon bolt/Tap bolt, Lag bolt, Machine bolt, Plow bolt, Sex bolt, Shoulder bolt, Square head bolt, Stud bolt, Timber bolt, T-head bolt, Toggle bolt, U-bolt, J-bolt, Eye bolts etc.
The examples of screws are: Wood screw, machine screw, thread cutting machine screw, sheet metal screw, self drilling sms, socket screw, eye lag, mating screw, set screw etc.

Summary of Difference Between Bolt and Screw

  • The bolt is an external threaded fastener designed for the insertion through holes in assembled parts. But the screw is an externally threaded fastener capable of being inserted into holes in assembled parts.
  • Generally bolts have uniform circular cross section but the cross section in the screw is not uniform, they have pointed tail in most of the cases.
  • The bolts are always used with the nuts but the screws are always used without nuts.
  • The threads on the bolts are spiral in structure and have smaller pitch. The screw threads are helical in structure and have larger pitch as compared with the bolts.
  • The bolts do not have tapered shank but the screw may or may not have tapered shank.
  • The bolts mostly require wrenches and spanner for the tightening and loosening purpose but the screw mostly requires screw drivers or Allen key.
  • The parts joined with the bolts have greater strength as compared with the screw.
  • The reliability of the bolted parts is more as compared with the screwed parts.
  • The bolts apply compression on the parts which are with them but the screw doesn’t do that.
  • The bolts may available in very large sizes but the screws are available in smaller or medium sizes.
This is all about the difference between bolt and screw. If you find anything missing or incorrect than tell us through your comments. And if this article looks you informative or useful than share and like it.




Difference Between Nuts and Bolts

In this article we will discuss about the difference between nuts and bolts. The nuts and bolts are the types of fasteners that are used in every manufacturing industry to join two parts together. Here we will try to learn all the possible differences of nuts and bolts.

Difference Between Nuts and Bolts

Difference Between Nuts and Bolts

Image Source: www.turbosquid.com

What is Nut?

It is a type of fastener which has a threaded hole. It is used with the conjugation of a bolt. The two partners (i.e. nut and bolt) are held together by the combination of their thread frictions, slight stretching of the bolt and compression of the part to be joined together.
  • The nuts are come with different locking mechanism which prevents the loosening due to the vibration of the machine parts or the parts which they joined.
  • They are mostly having circular cross section.
  • The nuts have internal threads so that it can be easily tighten on the bolt.
  • The size of the nut is small as compared with the bolt.
  • The nuts experiences compressive forces. It is the compressive stress that leads to its failure.
  • The various types of nuts are: Hex nut, Nylon insert lock nut, Jam nut, Nylon insert jam lock nut, Square nut, Cap nut, Acorn nut, T- nut, Kep nut, Castle nut, Wing nut, Flange nut, Slotted nut, Coupling nut etc.

What is Bolt?

A Bolt is threaded cylindrical rod which is used with a nut. It is used to join two piece together with a nut. It is a type of fastener.
  • A bolt is externally threaded. It may be fully threaded or partially threaded.
  • The bolts are cylindrical in shape. They are the solid cylinders with a head. The solid cylindrical part is called shank.
  • The size of the bolt is large as compared with the nut.
  • The bolts experiences tensile forces. It is the tensile stress that leads to its failure.
  • The various types of bolts are Anchor bolt, Carriage bolt, Elevator bolt, Flange bolt, Hanger bolt, Hexagon bolt/Tap bolt, Lag bolt, Machine bolt, Plow bolt, Sex bolt, Shoulder bolt, Square head bolt, Stud bolt, Timber bolt, T-head bolt, Toggle bolt, U-bolt, J-bolt, Eye bolts etc


Difference Between Nuts and Bolts in Tabular Form:

S.no
Nuts
Bolts
1.
The nut is a type of fastener which is always used with the bolt.
The bolt is a solid cylindrical  fastener used with the nut.
2.
The nuts are hollow circular cylinders with circular cross section.
The bolts are solid cylinders with circular cross section.
3.
Nuts have internal threads.
The bolts have external threads.
4.
They are smaller in size as compared with the bolts.
They are bigger in size as compared with the nuts.
5.
They have lock mechanism to prevent loosening.
They don’t have any lock mechanism.
6.
They do not have heads.
They have heads for the tightening and loosening.
7.
The nuts experiences compression forces on it and are generally failed due to compressive stresses.
They experiences tensile forces on it and are failed due to the tensile stresses.
8.
The various types of nuts are: Hex nut, Nylon insert lock nut, Jam nut, Nylon insert jam lock nut, Square nut, Cap nut, Acorn nut, T- nut, Kep nut, Castle nut, Wing nut, Flange nut, Slotted nut, Coupling nut etc.
The various types of bolts are: Anchor bolt, Carriage bolt, Elevator bolt, Flange bolt, Hanger bolt, Hexagon bolt/Tap bolt, Lag bolt, Machine bolt, Plow bolt, Sex bolt, Shoulder bolt, Square head bolt, Stud bolt, Timber bolt, T-head bolt, Toggle bolt, U-bolt, J-bolt, Eye bolts etc.


This is all about the difference between nuts and bolts. If you find anything missing or incorrect than comments us. And if you find this article informative and useful than don’t forget to like and share it.

What is Bolt?

A bolt is a type of fastener which is used to join two parts together. The bolts join the part non- permanently i.e. the parts may be separated from each other by  using an appropriate tool. Nuts are also used on the bolts so as to make the fastening process more effective. 

What is Bolt?


Parts of a Bolt
Parts of a Bolt

A bolt comprises of two parts and these are

1. Head: The upper portion of the bolt is called head. The head may have different shapes. The shape of the head depends upon the purpose for which the bolt is required.

2. Shank: The cylindrical portion of the bolt is called shank. The tail end of the bolt is threaded to a sufficient length so that a nut can be engaged on it. 

Specification of a Bolt

In order to completely specify a bolt, it is necessary to mention these eight features:

1. Shape or form of the thread
2. Pitch on the bolt
3. Shape of the head
4. Outline of the body, barrel and stem
5. Size or diameter
6. Direction of the thread ( as right handed or left handed)
7. Length and 
8. Material as steel, brass etc.

Dimensions of a Bolt

Dimensions of a Bolt

Materials of Bolt

The materials through which the bolt is manufactured are aluminium, brass, copper alloy, plastic, steel, harden steel, stainless steel and titanium. The selection of materials for the making of the bolt depends upon where it is going to be used.

Types of bolts

1. Anchor bolt
2. Carriage bolt
3. Elevator bolt
4. Flange bolt
5. Hanger bolt
6. Hexagon bolt/Tap bolt
7. Lag bolt
8. Machine bolt
9. Plow bolt
10. Sex bolt
11. Shoulder bolt
12. Square head bolt
13. Stud bolt
14. Timber bolt
15. T-head bolt
16. Toggle bolt
17. U-bolt
18. J-bolt
19. Eye bolts

In this article we have learnt about what is bolt? It you find anything missing or incorrect than comment us. If you find this article useful than like and share it on google+ and Facebook.

What is Lathe Machine? Main parts, Operations and Working

In this article we will study about what is lathe machine – main parts, operations and working. Almost in every industries of manufacturing lathe machines are used. It is used to perform various operations to give desired shape and size to the job. If an engineering students thinks of doing job in any manufacturing industries, than he or she must have knowledge about the lathe machine. In this post we will discuss about lathe machine.

What is Lathe Machine? Main parts, Operations and Working

What is Lathe Machine?

A lathe is a machine tool which is used to rotate a work piece to perform various operations such as turning, facing, knurling, grooving etc., with the help of tools that are applied to the work piece.

Working Principle of Lathe Machine



The function of lathe is to remove metal from a piece of work to give it a desired shape and size. In a lathe machine, the work piece is rotate against the tool. The tool is used to remove material from the work piece. The direction of motion of tool is called feed.

Main parts of lathe machine

The various main parts of lathe machine are


What is lathe Machine? Main parts, Operations and Working


1. Headstock: It is present at the left hand side of the lathe. It holds the gear train, main spindle, chuck, gear speed control levers and feed controllers. It is aligned with the tailstock. The head stock is made up of cast iron.

(i) Chuck: It is that part of lathe machine which is used to hold the work piece. It is attached to the main spindle of the headstock. It rotates with the spindle and also rotates the work piece. In the lathe machine we generally used three jaw or four jaw check. The three jaw of the three jaw chuck is made to move simultaneously but the jaws of the four jaw chuck moves independently.

(ii) Main Spindle: This part of the lathe machine is used to hold cylindrical work piece within it. It is a hollow shaft on which the chuck is mounted.

(iii) Feed Selector: It is used to select the direction of the feed i.e. whether we want to move the tool from left to right or right to left. Feed selector is present on the headstock.

2. Tailstock: It is present at right hand side of the lathe. It is used to provide supports to the work piece. It supports the work piece from one end i.e. right end.

3. Bed: It is the main part of the lathe. All the parts of the lathe is bolted on the bed. It comprises of headstock, tailstock, carriage guide ways and other parts. It is made of cast iron. 

Guide ways: Guide ways are present on the bed. As its name indicates it is used to guide the tail stock and carriage. The tailstock and carriage, slides over the guide ways. It is an inverted V.

4. Carriage: The carriage is present in between the headstock and tailstock. It carries apron, saddle, compound rest, cross slide and tool post.
(i) Tool Post: It is used to hold the tool. It has T-slot for holding the tool. Tool post is bolted on the carriage.
(ii) Compound Rest: It is used to set the tool at desired angle for taper turning and other operations.
(iii) Cross Slide: The cross slide is used to move the tool perpendicular to the axis of the lathe.
(iv) Saddle: The top portion of the carriage is called saddle. Cross slide is mounted on the saddle.
(v) Apron: The front portion of the carriage is called apron. It contains all the moving and control mechanism of the carriage.

5. Lead Screw: Lead screw is used to move the carriage automatically during threading.

6. Feed Rod: It is used to move the carriage from left to right and vice versa.

7. Chip Pan: Chip pan is used to collect the chips that are produced during the lathe operation. It is present at the bottom of the lathe.

8. Hand Wheel: It is the wheel which is operated by hand to move cross slide, carriage, tailstock and other parts which has hand wheel.

For Better Explanation  of the Main Parts of Lathe Machine, Watch the Video Given Below:




Types of Lathe Machine

Lathe machine are generally divided into three types. 

1. Engine lathe
2. Turret lathe
3. Special purpose lathe

Lathe Machine Operations

The various operations that we perform on the lathe are:

1. Facing: It is the first operation that is done on the work piece. It is a machining operation which is done to produce flat surfaces at the ends of the work piece. This operation is performed by feeding the tool perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the chuck.


Facing operation in lathe


2. Turning: In turning operation, the excess material is removed from the surface of the work piece to produce a cylindrical surface of desired shape and size. During the turning operation, the feed is moved along the axis of rotation of the chuck. It reduces the diameter of the cylindrical work piece.


Turning operation in lathe


3. Boring: The process of removing material from hole of the work piece is called boring. Holes are bored with the help of single point cutting tool.


Boring operation in lathe


4. Drilling: It is the process of making holes in the work piece by the use of drills. The drill is held in the tailstock and the drilling operation is done by advancing the drill in the work piece by rotating the handle of the tailstock.


Drilling operation in lathe


5. Reaming: The process of enlarging the holes to accurate sizes is called reaming. Reaming is always performed after drilling operation. It is similar to the drilling process. The reamer is held in the tailstock to carry out reaming operation.


Reaming operation in lathe


6. Counter Boring: The process of boring a hole to more than one diameter on the same axis is called counter boring. This operation is performed by boring tool.


Counter boring operation in lathe


7. Knurling: It is the process of making indentations (recess or sharp depression) on the border of a work piece. The knurling operation is done to provide a better grip to the job. It is performed by the knurling tool. The knurling tool is pressed against the job to perform the knurling operation.


Knurling operation in lathe


8. Chamfering: Chamfering is the process of beveling the extreme ends of a work piece. It is done in order to remove the burrs, to protect the end of the work piece from being damaged and to have a better look.


Chamfering operation in lathe


9. Parting Off: It is the process of cutting a work piece after it has been machined to the required shape and size.


Parting off operation in lathe


10. Grooving: The process of creating a narrow slot on the work piece is called grooving. It is also known as recessing or necking


Grooving operation in lathe


11. Forming: It is process in which a convex, concave or any irregular surface is formed on the work piece with the help of a forming tool. Forming tool having the required shape is used to perform forming operation.


Forming operation in lathe


12. Taper turning: It is the process in which a conical shape is produced on the work piece. During taper turning the feed is set at an angle to the work piece.


Taper turning operation in lathe


13. Threading: The process of making threads on a cylindrical job is called threading


Threading operation in lathe


14. Undercutting: In the undercutting operation, we enlarge the diameter if done internally and decrease the diameter if done externally. It is done at the end of the hole, near the stepped shoulder of a cylindrical surface and at the end of a threaded portion in blot.

14. Eccentric Turning: It is a turning operation in which turning is performed at different axis on single setting of job. This method of turning is generally used to produce crankshafts and camshafts.


Working of Lathe Machine

For the working of the lathe machine must watch the video given below. It is lengthy but very useful.




Lathe Machine Application


  • The lathe machine are used in metal working, wood turning, metal spinning, parts reclamation, thermal spraying and glass working.
  • It can be used to shape pottery, the potter’s wheel is the latest well known design made by lathe.
  • If we have most suitably equipped metal lathe than it can be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices.
  • Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity.
  • Examples of various objects that are produced by lathe are candlestick holders, gun barrels, cue sticks, table legs, bowls, baseball bats, musical instruments, crankshafts and camshafts.
In this article we have learnt about what is lathe machine - main parts, operations and working. if you find anything missing or incorrect than comment us. And if you find this article informative, than don't forget to like and share.