What Is Stress And Strain?

What is Stress?

Whenever an external force is applied on a body then a resisting force is induced in the body. This resisting force acting per unit area of the body is called stress. Under equilibrium condition this resisting force is equal to the applied load. So the stress is also defined as the ratio of applied force to the cross sectional area on which this external force is applied. The force applied on the body is called load.

For better understanding about the stress let’s take an example

What Is Stress And Strain?


Considered a bar of length L, cross section area A and an external force (load) P is applied on the body. Take a section x-x of the bar as shown in the figure. The load at the left of the section induces resisting force R at the right of the bar. And the load at the right of the section x-x as shown in figure above induces a resisting force R at the left of the section. Under equilibrium condition the resisting force remains equal with the applied load. The ratio of resisting force to the cross section area called stress.

stress=(resisting force)/(cross sectional area) = R/A

What is strain?

When an external force is applied on the body then some change in dimension of the body takes place. The ratio of this change in the dimension of the body to the original dimension is called strain.
  • Strain is a dimensional less quantity as it is the ratio of change in dimension to the original dimension.
  • The strain is denoted by the letter ‘e’.
Strain = change in dimension/ original dimension

For example: Considered again a bar of length L, and an external load P in the form of pull is applied on it. Due to this load there is some change in the length of the body. The length of the body increases by the amount dl. The ratio of this change in length (dL) to the original length (L) is called strain.

What Is Stress And Strain?


Strain = change in length/ original length
e = dL/L

Types of Strain

The various types of strain are as follows

1. Tensile strain: When an external load is applied on the body and there is increase in the length of the body. Then the ratio of increase in the length of the body to original length is called tensile strain. Tensile strain is always results in increase in length.

What Is Stress And Strain?

Tensile strain = increase in length/ original length


2. Compressive strain: The ratio of decrease in length of the body to the original length is called compressive strain. The compressive strain is always results in decrease in length of the body.
What Is Stress And Strain?

Compressive strain = decrease in length/ original length

3. Volumetric strain: The ratio of change in volume to the original volume is called volumetric strain.

What Is Stress And Strain?

Volumetric strain = change in volume/ original volume


4. Shear strain: The strain that is produced in the body due to shear stress is called shear strain.

Types of stress

The various types of stress are:

1. Normal stress: The stress that acts in the direction perpendicular to the area is called normal stress.

The normal stress is again of two types and these are

(i). Tensile stress: when a body is subjected to two equal and opposite pulls then the stress induced in the body is tensile stress. The tensile stress results in the increase in the length of the body.
What Is Stress And Strain?
(ii). Compressive stress: The stress induced in a body when it is subjected to equal and opposite pushes is called compressive stress.

What Is Stress And Strain?
  • The compressive stress is always results in the decrease in the length of the body.
  • The compressive stress acts normal to the area and pushes on the area.


(iii). Shear stress: The stress induced in a body, when subjected to two equal and opposite forces which are acting tangentially across the resisting section as a result of which the body tends to shear off across the section, is called shear stress.

What Is Stress And Strain?

  • The strain produced in a body due to shear stress is called shear strain.
  • The shear stress acts tangential to the area.
  • It is denoted by \tau\,.

lets check your grasp on stress and strain

1. The ratio load applied load to the cross section area is called
(i). Stress 
(ii). Strain 
(iii). Shear stress
(iv). Density

2. The ratio of change in dimension to the original dimension is called strain.
(i). True
(ii) False

3. When a body is applied with two equal and opposite push then the stress induced in the body is .............................
(i). Tensile stress
(ii). Tensile strain
(iii) Compressive stress
(iv). Non of these

4. The tensile strain is the ratio of 
(i). Decrease in length to the original length
(ii). Increase in length to the original length
(iii). Increase in volume to the original volume
(iv). None of these

5. Shear stress acts ........................ to the area.
(i). Normal
(ii). Tangential
(iii). Inclined
(iv). None of these

This is all about what is stress and strain?

Difference Between Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle

Difference Between Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle are

Difference Between Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle

The Otto cycle was given by German scientist Otto, in 1876 and diesel cycle was discovered by Dr. Rudolph Diesel in 1897. In Otto cycle the heat addition is takes place at constant volume where as in diesel cycle heat is added at constant pressure. Petrol engines work on Otto cycle and diesel engines work on diesel cycle. In Otto cycle at the time of heat addition, the piston is at TDC where as in diesel cycle when the piston is in backward stroke, the heat addition begins and last at a portion of piston stroke. The Otto cycle has less compression ratio (7:1 to 10:1) but in diesel cycle the compression ratio is high (11:1 to 22:1). In Otto cycle as well as in diesel cycle heat rejection takes place at constant volume. The efficiency of Otto cycle is less as compared with the Diesel cycle.


Table For Difference Between Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle 


OTTO CYCLE
DIESEL CYCLE
1.
Heat addition takes place at constant volume.
Heat addition takes place at constant pressure.
2.
Petrol engines work on this cycle
Diesel engines work on this cycle.
3.
At constant volume, heat rejection takes place.
in diesel cycle also the heat rejection takes place at constant volume.
4.
Compression ratio is less. It is 7:1 to 10:1.
Compression ratio is more. It is 11:1 to 22:1.
5.
Efficiency is less.
Efficiency is more.
6.
Adiabatic expansion takes place during the complete backward stroke of the piston.
After the heat addition is cut-off in the backward stroke, the adibatic expansion takes place during the remaining portion of stroke.


Types of Fluids In Fluid Mechanics

The different types of fluids are: 

Basically the fluids are classified into 5 types and these are

1. Ideal fluid
2. Real fluid
3. Newtonian fluid
4. Non-Newtonian fluid, and
5. Ideal plastic fluid

1. Ideal Fluid: A fluid which can not be compressed and have no viscosity falls in the category of  ideal fluid. Ideal fluid is not found in actual practice but it is an imaginary fluid because all the fluid that exist in the environment have some viscosity. there in no ideal fluid in reality.

2. Real Fluid: A fluid which has atleast some viscosity is called real fluid. Actually all the fluids existing or present in the environment are called real fluids. for example water.

3. Newtonian Fluid: If a real fluid obeys the Newton's law of viscosity (i.e the shear stress is directly proportional to the shear strain) then it is known as the Newtonian fluid.

4. Non-Newtonian Fluid: If real fluid does not obeys the Newton's law of viscosity then it is called Non-Newtonian fluid.

5. Ideal Plastic Fluid: A fluid having the value of shear stress more than the yield value and shear stress is proportional to the shear strain (velocity gradient) is known as ideal plastic fluid.

The graph between the shear stress and velocity gradient for the different types of fluids are given below:

Types of Fluids


lets check your grasp on the topic.

1. Name different types of fluids.
2. A fluid which have atleast some viscosity is known as
(i). Newtonian fluid
(ii). Real fluid
(iii). Ideal fluid
(iv). Ideal Plastic fluid

3. Name the type of fluid which does not obeys the Newton,s law of viscosity.
4. Write true or false for the following
(i). Fluids which are incompressible and have no viscosity is known as real fluid.
(ii). A ideal plastic fluid have the value of shear stress less than the yield value.
(iii). Ideal fluid exist in reality.
(iv). Newtonian fluids obeys the Newton,s law of viscosity.


What is Strain – Strength of Material?

What is strain?, this is a simple and common question generally asked by a person who goes to study about strain in strength of material. In this post I will try my level best to explain you about strain.

What is strain?

What is Strain – Strength of Material

When an external force is applied on a body, there is some change occur in the dimension of the body. The ratio of this change of dimension in the body to its actual length is called strain. 

For example: if you have a bar of length l and an external force P is applied on the bar, then there is some change in the length of the bar. Let the change produced in the bar is dl. Then the strain is the ratio of this change in the length to the original (actual) length. Strain is dimensionless quantity.

Mathematically,

strain= (change in length)/(original length)
e= dl/l

Types of strain:

Strain in mechanics is of four types and these are:
1. Tensile strain: The strain produced in a body due to tensile force is called the tensile strain. The tensile force is always results in increment of the length and decrease in the cross section area of the body. In this case the ratio of the increase in length to the original length is called tensile strain.

2. Compressive strain: The strain appears due to the compressive force is called compressive strain. In compressive force there is a decrease in the dimension of the body. So the ratio of the decrease in the length of the body to the original length is called compressive strain.

3. Volumetric strain: The ratio of the change in the volume of a body to the original volume is called the volumetric strain. In volumetric strain there is a change in the volume of the body due to application of the external forces.

4. Shear strain: The strain which is produced in a body due to shear force is called shear strain.


This is all about what is stress, types of stress and definition of each type of strain in strength of materials.

Fastest Bike In The World - Top 5

Everyone wants to own fastest bike in the world but very few of them have these super bikes. Here I am going to discuss about the top 5 fastest bike in the world which is known for their excellent speed. These bike increases the personality of the rider. They provide us the feeling of not to stop.


The list of the top 5 fastest bike in the world are:

5. Yamaha YZF R1

Fastest Bike In The World

The manufacturer of this bike is a Japan’s company Yamaha. It is four cylinder engines, 20 valves, DOHC, liquid cooled. The top speed of this motorcycle is 186 mph or 297 km/h. The power produced is 128.2 hp (95.6 Kw) at 10000 rpm. It consists of constant mesh gear box with six speed transmission system.

Important Features


  • Top speed: 180 mph (297 km/h).
  • Engine: four cylinders, 20 valves, DOHC, liquid cooled.
  • Power: 128.2 hp (95.6 kW) @ 10000 rpm.
  • Transmission: 6 speed with constant mesh.
Also Read:  Most Expensive Car In The World. 


4. Honda CBR1100XX Blackbird

Fastest Bike In The World

Honda is Japanese company manufacturing this bike. This bike has four cylinders, liquid-cooled engine of 1137cc. The top speed of this bike is 190 mph or 310 km/h. The power produced by this bike is 153 hp or 114 kW @ 10000 rpm. The 6 speed transmission system is used in it.

Important Features:


  • Top speed: 190 mph or 310 km/h.
  • Engine: four cylinders, liquid-cooled engine with 1137 cc.
  • Power: 153 hp or 114 kW @ 10000 rpm.
  • Transmission: 6 speed transmission system.



3. MTT Turbine Superbike Y2K

Fastest Bike In The World

It is installed with Rolls Royce 250-C20 turbo shaft engine. This bike is capable of attaining top speed of 227 mph or 365 Km/h. It produces a power of 320 hp (239 kW) at 52000 rpm. There is a 2 speed automatic transmission present in it which is different from other one.

Important Features


  • Top speed: 227 mph or 365 km/h.
  • Engine: Rolls Royce 250-C20 turbo shaft engine.
  • Power: 320 hp (239 kW).
  • Transmission: 2 speed automatic.

2. Suzuki Hayabusa

Fastest Bike In The World

This bike is the second fastest bike in the world having a top speed of 248 mph (392 km/h. It has 1340 cc, 4 stroke, four cylinder, liquid-cooled, DOHC, 16 Valve engine. The power produced by this bike is 197 hp (147 kW) @ 6750 rpm. It consists of transmission of 6 speeds with constant mesh.

Important Features


  • Top speed: 248 mph or 392 km/h.
  • Engine: 1340 cc, 4 stroke, four cylinder, liquid cooled, DOHC, 16 valve engine.
  • Power: 197 hp (147 kW) @ 6750 rpm.
  • Transmission: 6 speed with constant mesh.



1. Dodge Tomahawk.

Fastest Bike In The World

It is the Dodge tomahawk which has given the title for the fastest bike in the world with speed 350 mph (560 km/h). The type of engine installed in it is 90 degree V-type with 10 cylinders. This engine is capable of producing a power of 370 kW @ 5600 rpm. It has 2 speed simple transmission system. This bike is very limited in the world.

Important Features


  • Top speed: 350 mph or 560 km/h.
  • Engine: 90 degree V-type with 10 cylinders.
  • Power: 370 kW @ 5600 rpm.
  • Transmission: 2 speed simple transmission.



it is all about the top 5 fastest bike in the world.

Most Expensive Car In The world

The title for the most expensive car in the world goes to the Lamborghini Veneno Roadster. The price of Lamborghini Veneno Roadster is $ 4,500,000. This car is capable to hit a speed of 0 to 60 mph in 2.9 second. The top speed attained by this car is 221 mph. Only three cars are manufactured every year. If you want to own this car, than you have to go for waiting list.

Lamborghini Veneno Roadster - The Most Expensive Car in the World

 Most Expensive Car In The world

 Most Expensive Car In The world

Specification

  • This car is installed with V12, 60°, MPI engine. The compression ratio is 11.8 (± 0.2) : 1. 
  • It produces a maximum power of 750 CV (552 kW) @ 8,400 RPM and maximum torque of 690 Nm (507 lbft) @ 5,500 RPM. 
  • It has carbon fiber monocoque with aluminium front and rear frames; fixed roll-bar system. 
  • If go to talk about its body than it has carbon fiber exterior and carbon skin interior trim. 
  • External foldable mirrors are present on both the sides. 
  • Rear spoiler with visible carbon fiber big wing adjustable in three different aerodynamic positions is installed at the back.
  • The suspension present in it is front and rear horizontal mono-tube damper with push road system. 
  • It is facilitated with dual hydraulic circuit brake system with vaccum brake booster. 
  • The type of transmission is 4WD with Haldex generation IV and gearbox is 7 speed ISR. 
  • The type of clutch used in it is dry double plate clutch. 
  • If we go to talk about its performance, than this car can attain a maximum speed of 355 km/h (221 mph). It hits a speed of 0 to 60 mph in 2.9 second.
I hope that you have got a sufficient information about the most expensive car in the world. If you find any thing missing than don't forget to comment. 

Top 10 Automobile Industry in India



If you are thinking to know about the top automobile industry in India then you are at right place. In this article I am going to discuss about the top 10 automobile industry in India.



The top 10 automobile industry in India are



1.    Tata Motors
2.    Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd
3.    Maruti Suzuki
4.    Hero Motocorp Ltd
5.    Bajaj Auto Ltd
6.    Ashok Leyland
7.    Hyundai
8.    TVS Motor Company
9.    Eicher Motors
10.  Force Motors Ltd


Let us discuss about each one of them one by one.



1.    Tata Motors





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1945
•    Employees             : 60,000 (approx)
•    Head office            : Mumbai
•    Establishment        : 1945
•    Website                : www.tatamotors.com


Tata motors is the leading automobile industry in India. It was first founded in the year 1945. It is a public type company with 60,000 employees working in it. The head office of Tata Motors is situated in Mumbai. The establishment of it was took place in 1945.

It produces various products which include buses, trucks, coaches, vans, passenger cars, construction equipment and military vehicles. It is the world’s second largest bus manufacturer, fourth largest truck manufacturer and 17th largest motor vehicle manufacturing company.

Tata Motors has its auto manufacturing and assembly plants situated in Pune, Dharwad, Sanand, Lucknow, Pantnagar and Jamshedpur.
Tata launched his first fully indigenous Indian passenger car in 1998 named as Tata Indica and Tata Nano in 2008. Tata Safari was the first sport utility vehicles (SUVs) launched by Tata Motors in 1998.



2. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd





•    Type                      : Public
•    Founded                 : 1945
•    Employees              : 34,612
•    Head Office             : Mumbai
•    Establishment         : 1945
•    Website                 : www.mahindra.com


Mahindra is a public type global automobile company founded in the year 1945. This company is working with 34612 employees. Its head office is situated in Mumbai. This company was established in 1945.

It is one of the largest vehicle manufacturing company in India by production and largest tractor manufacturers in the world. According to the Brand Trust Report in 2014 it was given 10th rank for the most trusted brand in India.

Mahindra manufactures different vehicles which include jeeps, light commercial vehicle (LCVs), agriculture tractors, SUVs, saloon cars, pickups, two wheeled motorcycles.
 

3. Maruti Suzuki





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1981
•    Employees             : 6,903
•    Head Office            : New Delhi
•    Establishment         : 1981
•    Website                 : www.marutisuzuki.com


Maruti Suzuki is one of the best automobile company among the top ten automobile companies in India. It was founded in the year 1981. Recently about 6903 employees are working in it. Its head office is situated in New Delhi. It was established in the year 1981.

37% of India’s four wheeler market is captured by Maruti Suzuki.

Some of the flagship products that are manufactured by the Maruti Suzuki Company are Swift, Wagon E, Zen, Dzire, SX4 and Omni.



4. Hero MotoCorp Ltd





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1982
•    Employees             : 5842
•    Head office            : New Delhi
•    Establishment        : 1984
•    Website                : www.heromotorcorp.com


Hero Motocorp emerges out as a best motorcycle and scooter manufacturing company in India. It is a public type company founded in the year 1982 and established in 1984. About 5842 employees are attached to this company. Its head office is situated in New Delhi. The company was started its journey with a joint venture between Herocycles of India and Honda of Japan.

In 2010 Honda decided to remove the joint venture and in 2011 company was renamed as Hero Motocorp.



5. Baja Auto Limited





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1930
•    Employees             : 8,036   
•    Head office            : Pune
•    Establishment        : 1930
•    Website                : bajajauto.com


It is an Indian two wheeler manufacturing Company. It was started in the year 1930 by Jamnalal Bajaj. This Company has an experience of more than 100 years in automobile industry. In the year 2012, Bajaj Auto Ltd is put in the list of top 2000 global Company by Fortune.



6. Ashok Leyland





•    Type                    : Public
•    Founded               : 1948
•    Employees            : 15,812
•    Head office           : Chennai, Tamil Nadu
•    Establishment       : 1948
•    Website               : www.ashokleyland.com


The title for the second largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in India is goes to the Ashok Leyland Company. This Company was founded in the year 1948. 15,812 employees are associated with this Company. Ashok Leyland is a part of Hinduja Group. It comprises of 30% share of commercial vehicle segment in India. The head office of the Company is situated in Chennai.



7. Hyundai





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1947
•    Head office            : Seoul, South Korea
•    Establishment        : 1967
•    Website                : www.hyundai.com


Hyundai is a South Korean based Multinational Company established in the year 1967 with a huge experience in automobile industry. It is playing a prominent role in 4 wheeler segment in Indian automobile industry and launched i10, i20 car series to capture the growing Indian Market.



8. TVS Motor Company





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1978
•    Head office            : Chennai
•    Establishment        : 1978
•    Website                : www.tvsmotor.in


TVS Motor Company was founded in the year 1979 with its head office situated in Chennai. It is a part of TVS group which manufactures scooters, motorcycles, mopeds and auto rickshaws in India.



9. Eicher Motors





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1948
•    Employees             : 2,500
•    Head office            : Gurgaon, India
•    Website                : www.eicher.in


Eicher is one of the leading commercial vehicle manufacturers in India. It was founded in the year 1948. The head office of Eicher Motors is situated in Gurgaon, India. The Eicher Motors Ltd (EML) is a flagship Company of Eicher group. This company has about 2500 employees working in it. It is the first company which was capable of producing the first agricultural tractor for India in 1959.



10. Force Motors Ltd





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1958
•    Employees             : 8000
•    Head office            : Pune
•    Establishment        : 1958
•    Website                : www.forcemotors.com


In the list of the top 10 automobile industry in india, the Force Motors comes at last position. This Company was founded in the year 1958. Its head office is situated in Pune. About 8000 employees are working in this company. The products offered are force one, balwan tractor, traveler trax etc.