What is Strain – Strength of Material?

What is strain?, this is a simple and common question generally asked by a person who goes to study about strain in strength of material. In this post I will try my level best to explain you about strain.

What is strain?

What is Strain – Strength of Material

When an external force is applied on a body, there is some change occur in the dimension of the body. The ratio of this change of dimension in the body to its actual length is called strain. 

For example: if you have a bar of length l and an external force P is applied on the bar, then there is some change in the length of the bar. Let the change produced in the bar is dl. Then the strain is the ratio of this change in the length to the original (actual) length. Strain is dimensionless quantity.

Mathematically,

strain= (change in length)/(original length)
e= dl/l

Types of strain:

Strain in mechanics is of four types and these are:
1. Tensile strain: The strain produced in a body due to tensile force is called the tensile strain. The tensile force is always results in increment of the length and decrease in the cross section area of the body. In this case the ratio of the increase in length to the original length is called tensile strain.

2. Compressive strain: The strain appears due to the compressive force is called compressive strain. In compressive force there is a decrease in the dimension of the body. So the ratio of the decrease in the length of the body to the original length is called compressive strain.

3. Volumetric strain: The ratio of the change in the volume of a body to the original volume is called the volumetric strain. In volumetric strain there is a change in the volume of the body due to application of the external forces.

4. Shear strain: The strain which is produced in a body due to shear force is called shear strain.


This is all about what is stress, types of stress and definition of each type of strain in strength of materials.

Fastest Bike In The World - Top 5

Everyone wants to own fastest bike in the world but very few of them have these super bikes. Here I am going to discuss about the top 5 fastest bike in the world which is known for their excellent speed. These bike increases the personality of the rider. They provide us the feeling of not to stop.


The list of the top 5 fastest bike in the world are:

5. Yamaha YZF R1

Fastest Bike In The World

The manufacturer of this bike is a Japan’s company Yamaha. It is four cylinder engines, 20 valves, DOHC, liquid cooled. The top speed of this motorcycle is 186 mph or 297 km/h. The power produced is 128.2 hp (95.6 Kw) at 10000 rpm. It consists of constant mesh gear box with six speed transmission system.

Important Features


  • Top speed: 180 mph (297 km/h).
  • Engine: four cylinders, 20 valves, DOHC, liquid cooled.
  • Power: 128.2 hp (95.6 kW) @ 10000 rpm.
  • Transmission: 6 speed with constant mesh.
Also Read:  Most Expensive Car In The World. 


4. Honda CBR1100XX Blackbird

Fastest Bike In The World

Honda is Japanese company manufacturing this bike. This bike has four cylinders, liquid-cooled engine of 1137cc. The top speed of this bike is 190 mph or 310 km/h. The power produced by this bike is 153 hp or 114 kW @ 10000 rpm. The 6 speed transmission system is used in it.

Important Features:


  • Top speed: 190 mph or 310 km/h.
  • Engine: four cylinders, liquid-cooled engine with 1137 cc.
  • Power: 153 hp or 114 kW @ 10000 rpm.
  • Transmission: 6 speed transmission system.



3. MTT Turbine Superbike Y2K

Fastest Bike In The World

It is installed with Rolls Royce 250-C20 turbo shaft engine. This bike is capable of attaining top speed of 227 mph or 365 Km/h. It produces a power of 320 hp (239 kW) at 52000 rpm. There is a 2 speed automatic transmission present in it which is different from other one.

Important Features


  • Top speed: 227 mph or 365 km/h.
  • Engine: Rolls Royce 250-C20 turbo shaft engine.
  • Power: 320 hp (239 kW).
  • Transmission: 2 speed automatic.

2. Suzuki Hayabusa

Fastest Bike In The World

This bike is the second fastest bike in the world having a top speed of 248 mph (392 km/h. It has 1340 cc, 4 stroke, four cylinder, liquid-cooled, DOHC, 16 Valve engine. The power produced by this bike is 197 hp (147 kW) @ 6750 rpm. It consists of transmission of 6 speeds with constant mesh.

Important Features


  • Top speed: 248 mph or 392 km/h.
  • Engine: 1340 cc, 4 stroke, four cylinder, liquid cooled, DOHC, 16 valve engine.
  • Power: 197 hp (147 kW) @ 6750 rpm.
  • Transmission: 6 speed with constant mesh.



1. Dodge Tomahawk.

Fastest Bike In The World

It is the Dodge tomahawk which has given the title for the fastest bike in the world with speed 350 mph (560 km/h). The type of engine installed in it is 90 degree V-type with 10 cylinders. This engine is capable of producing a power of 370 kW @ 5600 rpm. It has 2 speed simple transmission system. This bike is very limited in the world.

Important Features


  • Top speed: 350 mph or 560 km/h.
  • Engine: 90 degree V-type with 10 cylinders.
  • Power: 370 kW @ 5600 rpm.
  • Transmission: 2 speed simple transmission.



it is all about the top 5 fastest bike in the world.

Most Expensive Car In The world

The title for the most expensive car in the world goes to the Lamborghini Veneno Roadster. The price of Lamborghini Veneno Roadster is $ 4,500,000. This car is capable to hit a speed of 0 to 60 mph in 2.9 second. The top speed attained by this car is 221 mph. Only three cars are manufactured every year. If you want to own this car, than you have to go for waiting list.

Lamborghini Veneno Roadster - The Most Expensive Car in the World

 Most Expensive Car In The world

 Most Expensive Car In The world

Specification

  • This car is installed with V12, 60°, MPI engine. The compression ratio is 11.8 (± 0.2) : 1. 
  • It produces a maximum power of 750 CV (552 kW) @ 8,400 RPM and maximum torque of 690 Nm (507 lbft) @ 5,500 RPM. 
  • It has carbon fiber monocoque with aluminium front and rear frames; fixed roll-bar system. 
  • If go to talk about its body than it has carbon fiber exterior and carbon skin interior trim. 
  • External foldable mirrors are present on both the sides. 
  • Rear spoiler with visible carbon fiber big wing adjustable in three different aerodynamic positions is installed at the back.
  • The suspension present in it is front and rear horizontal mono-tube damper with push road system. 
  • It is facilitated with dual hydraulic circuit brake system with vaccum brake booster. 
  • The type of transmission is 4WD with Haldex generation IV and gearbox is 7 speed ISR. 
  • The type of clutch used in it is dry double plate clutch. 
  • If we go to talk about its performance, than this car can attain a maximum speed of 355 km/h (221 mph). It hits a speed of 0 to 60 mph in 2.9 second.
I hope that you have got a sufficient information about the most expensive car in the world. If you find any thing missing than don't forget to comment. 

Top 10 Automobile Industry in India



If you are thinking to know about the top automobile industry in India then you are at right place. In this article I am going to discuss about the top 10 automobile industry in India.



The top 10 automobile industry in India are



1.    Tata Motors
2.    Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd
3.    Maruti Suzuki
4.    Hero Motocorp Ltd
5.    Bajaj Auto Ltd
6.    Ashok Leyland
7.    Hyundai
8.    TVS Motor Company
9.    Eicher Motors
10.  Force Motors Ltd


Let us discuss about each one of them one by one.



1.    Tata Motors





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1945
•    Employees             : 60,000 (approx)
•    Head office            : Mumbai
•    Establishment        : 1945
•    Website                : www.tatamotors.com


Tata motors is the leading automobile industry in India. It was first founded in the year 1945. It is a public type company with 60,000 employees working in it. The head office of Tata Motors is situated in Mumbai. The establishment of it was took place in 1945.

It produces various products which include buses, trucks, coaches, vans, passenger cars, construction equipment and military vehicles. It is the world’s second largest bus manufacturer, fourth largest truck manufacturer and 17th largest motor vehicle manufacturing company.

Tata Motors has its auto manufacturing and assembly plants situated in Pune, Dharwad, Sanand, Lucknow, Pantnagar and Jamshedpur.
Tata launched his first fully indigenous Indian passenger car in 1998 named as Tata Indica and Tata Nano in 2008. Tata Safari was the first sport utility vehicles (SUVs) launched by Tata Motors in 1998.



2. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd





•    Type                      : Public
•    Founded                 : 1945
•    Employees              : 34,612
•    Head Office             : Mumbai
•    Establishment         : 1945
•    Website                 : www.mahindra.com


Mahindra is a public type global automobile company founded in the year 1945. This company is working with 34612 employees. Its head office is situated in Mumbai. This company was established in 1945.

It is one of the largest vehicle manufacturing company in India by production and largest tractor manufacturers in the world. According to the Brand Trust Report in 2014 it was given 10th rank for the most trusted brand in India.

Mahindra manufactures different vehicles which include jeeps, light commercial vehicle (LCVs), agriculture tractors, SUVs, saloon cars, pickups, two wheeled motorcycles.
 

3. Maruti Suzuki





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1981
•    Employees             : 6,903
•    Head Office            : New Delhi
•    Establishment         : 1981
•    Website                 : www.marutisuzuki.com


Maruti Suzuki is one of the best automobile company among the top ten automobile companies in India. It was founded in the year 1981. Recently about 6903 employees are working in it. Its head office is situated in New Delhi. It was established in the year 1981.

37% of India’s four wheeler market is captured by Maruti Suzuki.

Some of the flagship products that are manufactured by the Maruti Suzuki Company are Swift, Wagon E, Zen, Dzire, SX4 and Omni.



4. Hero MotoCorp Ltd





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1982
•    Employees             : 5842
•    Head office            : New Delhi
•    Establishment        : 1984
•    Website                : www.heromotorcorp.com


Hero Motocorp emerges out as a best motorcycle and scooter manufacturing company in India. It is a public type company founded in the year 1982 and established in 1984. About 5842 employees are attached to this company. Its head office is situated in New Delhi. The company was started its journey with a joint venture between Herocycles of India and Honda of Japan.

In 2010 Honda decided to remove the joint venture and in 2011 company was renamed as Hero Motocorp.



5. Baja Auto Limited





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1930
•    Employees             : 8,036   
•    Head office            : Pune
•    Establishment        : 1930
•    Website                : bajajauto.com


It is an Indian two wheeler manufacturing Company. It was started in the year 1930 by Jamnalal Bajaj. This Company has an experience of more than 100 years in automobile industry. In the year 2012, Bajaj Auto Ltd is put in the list of top 2000 global Company by Fortune.



6. Ashok Leyland





•    Type                    : Public
•    Founded               : 1948
•    Employees            : 15,812
•    Head office           : Chennai, Tamil Nadu
•    Establishment       : 1948
•    Website               : www.ashokleyland.com


The title for the second largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in India is goes to the Ashok Leyland Company. This Company was founded in the year 1948. 15,812 employees are associated with this Company. Ashok Leyland is a part of Hinduja Group. It comprises of 30% share of commercial vehicle segment in India. The head office of the Company is situated in Chennai.



7. Hyundai





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1947
•    Head office            : Seoul, South Korea
•    Establishment        : 1967
•    Website                : www.hyundai.com


Hyundai is a South Korean based Multinational Company established in the year 1967 with a huge experience in automobile industry. It is playing a prominent role in 4 wheeler segment in Indian automobile industry and launched i10, i20 car series to capture the growing Indian Market.



8. TVS Motor Company





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1978
•    Head office            : Chennai
•    Establishment        : 1978
•    Website                : www.tvsmotor.in


TVS Motor Company was founded in the year 1979 with its head office situated in Chennai. It is a part of TVS group which manufactures scooters, motorcycles, mopeds and auto rickshaws in India.



9. Eicher Motors





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1948
•    Employees             : 2,500
•    Head office            : Gurgaon, India
•    Website                : www.eicher.in


Eicher is one of the leading commercial vehicle manufacturers in India. It was founded in the year 1948. The head office of Eicher Motors is situated in Gurgaon, India. The Eicher Motors Ltd (EML) is a flagship Company of Eicher group. This company has about 2500 employees working in it. It is the first company which was capable of producing the first agricultural tractor for India in 1959.



10. Force Motors Ltd





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1958
•    Employees             : 8000
•    Head office            : Pune
•    Establishment        : 1958
•    Website                : www.forcemotors.com


In the list of the top 10 automobile industry in india, the Force Motors comes at last position. This Company was founded in the year 1958. Its head office is situated in Pune. About 8000 employees are working in this company. The products offered are force one, balwan tractor, traveler trax etc.

Top 5 Fastest Fighter Jets In The World

Fighter jets are the military aircrafts designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircrafts. The main specialty of fighter aircraft is its fast speed, maneuverability and small size as compared to other combat aircrafts. Many fighter jets are designed for dual purpose; they can attack both in air and on ground. I have collected a list of top 5 fastest fighter jets in the world which I am sharing in this article.

Also Read: Top 5 Fastest Cars In The World

Top 5 Fastest Fighter Jets In The World

5. SU-30 MKI

The Su-30MKI is a super-manoeuvrable air superiority fighter developed by Russia's Sukhoi and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). It is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter. The Su-30MKI is expected to form the backbone of the Indian Air Force's fighter fleet to 2020 and beyond.

Top Speed: 2,120 km/h

SU-30 MKI

4. MiG-21

The MiG-21 is a supersonic jet fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.

Top Speed: 2,175 km/h

MiG-21

3. F-22 Raptor

The F-22 Raptor is a twin-engine, single-seat and all weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF). It has some additional capabilities including signals intelligence roles, ground attack and electronic warfare.

Top Speed: 2,410 km/h

F-22 Raptor

2. Eurofighter Typhoon

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a canard-delta wing , twin-engine, multirole fighter jet. It was designed and was manufactured by three companies together, Alenia Aermacchi, Airbus Group and BAE Systems.

Top Speed: 2,495 km/h

Eurofighter Typhoon

1. Su-35

The Su-35  is also known as Super Flanker. It is a twin-engine supermaneuverable multirole fighters, single-seat fighter jet designed by Sukhoi and built by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO). Its first variant was designed in 1980s, which was initially known as the Su-27M. Later on it was re-designated and known as Su-35.

Top Speed: 2,500 km/h

Su-35

If you find something incorrect, missing or know about any other fastest fighter jets that should be in this list then please mention it by commenting below.

Source: Wikipedia

Types of Automobiles

In our day to day life we come across different types of automobiles but we exactly don't know how many types of automobiles are present in the world. In this article I am going to tell you about their types.

Types of Automobiles

The different types of automobiles are classified on the following basis:

Types of Automobiles


Purpose 

    According to the purpose the vehicles are classified as passenger vehicles and goods vehicles. The vehicles which carries passengers are called as passenger vehicles and those carries materials or goods are called as goods vehicles. Some of the examples of these vehicles are given below.

1. Passenger vehicles: Car, Bus, Jeep, Auto-rickshaw.
2. Goods vehicles: Truck.

Capacity

According to the capacity the vehicles are classified as light motor vehicles and heavy motor vehicles. The light motor vehicles can able to carry light things and are also less in size and weight. But the heavy motor vehicles can carry very heavy materials and possess large mass and are bigger in size.

1. Light motor vehicles: Motorcycle, Car,  Scooter.
2. Heavy motor vehicles: Bus, Tractor, Truck.

Fuel used

On the basis of the fuel used the vehicles can be divided into petrol vehicles, diesel vehicles, electric cab, steam carriages and gas vehicles.

1. Petrol vehicles: Car, Motorcycle, Jeep, Scooter.
2. Diesel vehicles: Truck, Bus, Tractor, Car.
3. Electric cab: Fork lift, Battery truck.
4. Steam carriages: Steam road roller.
5. Gas vehicles: CNG vehicles.

Number of wheels

According to the number of wheels the vehicles are classified as two, three, four, six and eight or more wheelers.

1. Two -wheeler: Motorcycles, Scooter, Moped.
2. Three -wheeler:Tempo, Road roller.
3. Four -wheeler: Car, Bus, Jeep, Tractor.
4. Six- wheeler: Truck, Bus, Gun carriage vehicle.
5. Eight- or more wheelers: Car transporting vehicle, Rocket transporter.

Drive of the vehicles

According to the type of drive the vehicles are classified as single-wheel, two-wheel, four-wheel and six-wheel drive vehicle.

1. Single-wheel drive vehicle.
2. Two-wheel drive vehicle.
3. Four- wheel drive vehicle.
4. Six-wheel drive vehicle.

What is Density, Specific Weight, Specific Volume and Specific Gravity?


What is Density, Specific Weight, Specific Volume and Specific Gravity


What is Inside?

  • Density or mass density,
  • Specific weight,
  • Specific volume and
  • Specific gravity

Density or Mass Density: 

Density (mass density) of a fluid is defined as the ratio of mass of a fluid to the volume of the fluid. In other words it is defined as the mass per unit volume of a fluid.


Mass density (density) = mass/volume
ρ = m/V

Specific Weight:

Specific weight of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the weight of a fluid to the volume of the fluid. Or weight of a fluid per unit volume is called its specific weight.


Specific weight = (weight of fluid)/(volume of fluid)
w = mg/V = ρg

Specific Volume:

Specific volume of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the volume of a fluid to the mass of the fluid. In other words it may also be defined as volume per unit mass of a fluid.


Specific volume = (volume of fluid)/(mass of fluid)
specific volume = V/m  = 1/ρ

Specific Gravity:

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the density of a fluid to the density of a standard fluid. For liquids, water is taken as the standard fluid where as for gases air is taken as the standard fluid. It is denoted by the symbol S.


specific gravity, S = (density of liquid)/(density of water) 
                   = (density of gas )/(density of air)
  • The density of water is taken as 1000 kg/ cubic metre


Internal Combustion Engine Parts And Metals From Which it is manufactured.

A metal decide the performance and limit of a machine. We are often interested in finding which metal is used in manufacturing of an IC engine and why. In manufacturing of an engine we have to use those metals which can handle the pressure and temperature of the engine and should be cheap in price. Today I am going to tell you about the metals which is used in IC engine and there method of manufacturing.

Cylinder block:

Cylinder is made by high grade cast iron because it is in direct contact of combustion gases. Cast iron has high compressive strength to handle the pressure and temperature. It is made by casting and usually cast in one piece.


Cylinder head:


The main function of cylinder head is to seal the cylinder and it should be light in weight. So cylinder head is usually made by cast iron or aluminum. It is made by casting or forging and usually in one piece.



Piston:

Piston is prime mover in engine so it should be light. It is in direct contact with combustion temperature and pressure so it should has high strength to handle this pressure. So generally piston is made by cast iron but sometime it is made by aluminum alloy. Usually it is made by casting.




 Piston ring:

Piston ring is usually made by fine grain of cast iron which has high elasticity and it is not affected by the working pressure. Sometime piston rings are made by alloy spring steel. It is made by forging.


Connecting rod:

Connecting rod transmits the power to crankshaft. It should have high strength. So it is made by alloy steel but in small engine it is made by aluminum to achieve lighter weight. It is made by forging.



Inlet valve and Exhaust valve:

Inlet valve admits the air and fuel into the cylinder. It is usually made by silicon chrome steel with about 3% carbon. It is made by forging.
Exhaust valve discharge the exhaust gases. It is made by austenitic steal. It is also made by forging.


Crankshaft:

Crankshaft converts the reciprocating motion of piston into rotary motion. It should have high tensile strength. So the crankshaft made by high tensile steel or sometime by cast iron. It is usually made by forging.

Piston Pin:

Piston pin is made by hardened steel so it can support and allow to connecting rod to swivel. It is usually made by forging.


Engine bearing:

Engine bearing should have lubricant property and strength to withstand in moving load. So its half is made of steel or bronze back to which a lining of relatively soft bearing material is applied.



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