# Types of Stress – Strength of Materials

In this article will study the types of stress, normal stress, tensile stress, compressive stress, and shear stress. We will discuss about the definition and formula of each stress in detail.

**Types of Stress**

A stress acts on a body may be normal stress or shear stress.

**Normal Stress**:

Normal stress is a stress that acts perpendicular to the area. The formula for the normal stress is given by

The normal stress is again subdivided into two parts.

**Tensile Stress:**

The stress-induced in a body when it is subjected to two equal and opposite pulls as shown in the figure given below is called tensile stress.

- Due to the tensile stress there is an increase in the length of the body and decrease in the cross section area of the body.
- Tensile stress is a type of normal stress, so it acts at 90 degree to the area.
- The strain which is induced due to tensile stress is called tensile strain. It is equals to the ratio of increase in the length to the original length.

**Also Read:**

- Stress Strain Curve – Relationship, Diagram and Explanation
- Difference Between Stress and Strain in Strength of Materials
- What is Elasticity, Elastic Limit, Young’s Modulus and Modulus of Rigidity in Strength of Materials?

**Compressive Stress:**

The stress which induced in a body when it is subjected to two equal and opposite pushes as shown in the figure given below is called compressive stress.

- Due to the compressive stress, there is a decrease in the length and increase in the cross section area of the body.
- Compressive stress is also a type of normal stress and so it also acts at 90 degree to the area.
- The strain which is induced due to compressive stress is called compressive strain. It is equals to the ratio of decrease in the length to the original length.

**Shear Stress:**

Shear stress induced in a body when it is subjected to two equal and opposite forces that acts tangential to the area.

- The strain produced due to the shear stress is called shear strain.
- The shear stress is denoted by the symbol τ (tau). It is a Greek letter.
- It is defined as ratio of shear resistance to the shear area.
- The formula for the shear stress is given below.

- Shear stress is responsible for the change in the shape of the body. It does on affect the volume of the body.

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