In this article, we will study about the difference between forging and casting or forging vs casting. In the manufacturing process, these two processes forging and casting is very crucial. Without them, it is impossible to make any machinery, tools, the shape of a part, etc. Forging and casting both are used in the manufacturing industries but they have a lot of differences between them. Here we will discuss forging vs casting in detail.
What is Forging?
Forging is a process in which the metals and alloys are changed to the specific shape by compressive forces exerted by some external agencies. These external agencies may be hammers, rolls, press, and an upsetting machine.
- The portion of work in which forging is done is called forge.
Why forging is used?
- Forging is used when a less complex object is needed to manufacture and of less heavy weight.
- It is used to get greater strength, high tensile strength, a high degree of surface finish, greater productivity, more reliability, greater dimensional accuracy, greater fatigue strength, etc in the desired product.
Where forging is used?
Forging is used in making railroad equipment, small tools, automobile tools and parts, in the aviation industries, etc.
How forging is done?
For more understanding about Forging, watch the video.
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What is Casting?
It is a process in which the material is heated to its molten state and this liquid molten material is poured into a mold of the desired cavity and left to solidify. After solidification, the pattern that we get is called casting. The casting is taken out of the mold when the process completed.
- The metals are the general materials used for the casting
Why casting is used?
- Casting is a very old process for forming any material in desired shape. It is a 6000 year old process.
- Casting is used to make complex shapes that are not easy to manufacture commercially by another manufacturing process.
Where casting is used?
- Casting is used to make complex parts of any machine.
- It is used in automobile industries, aerospace, railways, and shipping for manufacturing different parts.
- It is used to manufacture electrical equipment like motors, generators, pumps and compressor.
- If we talk about hardware industry than there, it is used to produce plumbing pipes, joints, fittings, valves etc.
- It is used to manufacture household equipment like gardening and kitchen equipment, furniture and fittings.
- There are other areas where casting is used or we can say that almost every industry uses the processes of casting to manufacture their respective products.
Difference Between Forging and Casting
- In forging the material is heated below its recystallisation temperature but in casting the material is heated upto its molten state.
- The objects formed by forging have less compressive strength as compared with the casting.
- The fatigue strength of the product in the forging is high. In the casting the fatigue strength is less.
- In forging the imperfection or directional defect improves but it is not so in case of casting.
- The object produced in the forging has more reliability as compared with the object produced in the casting.
- The forging process provides greater tensile strength to the body than casting.
- In forging there is no requirement of secondary finishing operation but in casting secondary finish operation is must to get the desired dimensions. Sometimes forging also requires secondary finish operation.
- High dimension accuracy is obtained in the forging as compared with the casting.
- Less wastage of material as no secondary finishing operation is required. In casting wastage of material is more as secondary finishing operation is required.
- Forging gives greater productivity than casting.
- Grain orientation is favorable in forging but it is not possible in case of casting.
- High degree of surface finish is obtained in forging. The surface finish in case of casting is not of a high degree of accuracy as compared with the forging.
- The cost of material and lead time is less in forging. In casting the cost and lead time is more.
Forging vs Casting or Difference Between Forging and Casting in Tabular Form
|1.||Heating of material||Material is heated below its recrystallisation temperature.||Material is heated upto its molten state.|
|4.||Improvement of imperfection or directional defects||Yes||No|
|7.||Requirement of secondary finishing operation||No||Yes|
|11.||Favorability of grain orientation||Yes||No|
|12.||Degree of surface finish||High||Less|
|13.||Cost of manufacturing||less||more|
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