What are the Main Parts of an Automobile Engine?

Introduction

The burning heart of our fast cars, yeah you are right, I am talking about engine. It’s the power unit we have to spin our car wheels. The entire thrill we have got while driving depends on the capacity of this power unit, and the limits up-to which we can push its components to operate safely. It is the combination of all parts of an engine that makes a car to move faster and faster.

So let’s just dig out what it’s components are, and how precisely they must be engineered to get the maximum power out of an engine.

Main Parts of an Engine

Main Parts of an Engine

1. Engine Block

Engine Block

Image source

Engine block is an important parts of an engine. It is made by pouring the molten iron or aluminum alloy into a mold. The mold is made such that we should have required number of holes in the casted block, which are said to be the number of cylinders of an engine or engine cylinders. The diameter of these holes is called the bore of an engine.

We have some more holes along the length of engine cylinder, these are water and oil flow paths required for cooling and lubrication of an engine. Oil paths or vents are rather narrower than water flow vents.

What else we have in an engine block is semi-circular seats. On these seats half part of thrust bearings (thrust bearings come in two parts) are mounted, then we place crankshaft in these thrust bearings. But we still need to hold crankshaft to the engine block, to do that we have bearing-caps.

Bearing-caps have a semi-circular seat for other half part of thrust bearing. To mount the bearing-cap with engine block we use studs and nuts. One threaded end of stud goes into internal threaded hole in engine block, and other threaded end of stud goes into hole in bearing-cap and we fasten them together with nut. Two studs are used for holding one bearing-cap in place.

Now that we know that why we have semi-circular seats, in an engine block, let’s take a look what we going to do with cylindrical holes in the block.

2. Piston

piston

Image source

Piston is a cylindrical structure with a flat surface called crown at the top. Piston is the component that moves up and down in an engine cylinder. Wait what it would cause?, friction if one cylinder (piston) moving up and down in another cylinder? Yeah to overcome this problem groves are made on the circumference of this cylindrical structure (piston). And we place rings in these groves called piston rings. So now the whole cylindrical structure is not rubbing with engine cylinder and only piston rings are in contact with engine cylinder thus reducing friction to a great extent.

Now how we go to use this up and down motion of piston, for that we need to know about 2 more things that are connecting rod and wrist pin.

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3. Connecting Rod

connecting-rod

Image source

It is an ‘I’ shape structure whose one end is connected to piston and other one to crankshaft. The piston side end of connecting rod has hole in it. And we have also got a hole in piston’s cylindrical structure just beneath the piston rings. So we align this hole with connecting rods hole and put a wrist pin through it. Wrist pin act as a bearing and connecting rod can move like pendulum beneath piston, though piston’s cylindrical structure is gonna limit its motion. To make sure that wrist pin should not move from its position it is restricted by snap ring at both sides.

Other end of the connecting rod can be split into two parts. First is semi-circular journal bearing seat, which is placed over crankshaft after installing the half part of journal bearing, in the seat. Other half is journal bearing cap. These two parts are bolted together, holding crankshaft in between. Thus piston is now connected to crankshaft through connecting rod.

4. Crankshaft

crankshaft- Parts of an engine

Image source

As name suggests it is designed in such a way to convert linear (up and down) motion of piston into rotational motion. It works same as slider- crank mechanism. Material used for making crankshaft is cast iron generally but we also use forged steel in high power engines where load on crankshaft is too high.

Casting a crank-shaft seems to be an easy task, but it’s not. Once crankshaft is casted it is then machined, which is not that easy considering its shape. Then after machining it requires proper balancing to work properly.

You will generally find some random holes in crankshaft; these holes are for balancing the crankshaft while rotating at high speed.

5. Crankshaft Casing or Oil Sump

engine oil sump

It is also called as oil sump. It is a casing which is bolted to engine block, which covers engine from bottom thus called crankshaft casing.  It retains lubricating oil in it which is pumped to different engine parts. Crankshaft has got small holes which spills oil towards piston, to remove piston heat and lubricate the piston rings, so it also prevents oil from splashing. We have got a bolt at the bottom of this casing from where we remove used lubricating oil during maintenance.

6. Engine Head

engine headImage source 

Engine head is casted in the same way as engine block. Its mold is made such that the casted piece must have an opening for air to flow into engine cylinder and an exhaust opening from where the burnt gases will go out. This passage of air flowing in and going out of engine cylinder is controlled by inlet and outlet valves. So engine head also has cylindrical holes to insert valve stem. Furthermore to burn the air-fuel mixture we have to fire it up and how we gonna do that? Yeah we need a spark plug which must produce a spark inside engine cylinder, for this we need cylindrical hole in engine block to put spark plug into engine cylinder. We also have semi-circular seats casted in engine head for camshaft bearings.

Before we discuss all the new terminology we have used to explain the engine block let’s just figure out how engine head is attached to the engine block.

We have 4 internally threaded holes at the top of engine block. Threaded end of the stud gets fastened up in engine block and we have 4 studs fasten up in the same way in the engine block, then we put a gasket whose holes align with the engine block studs. We have 4 holes through the engine head and they align with 4 fastened studs of engine block. So this way we fasten the engine block and engine head with gasket in between together with help of stud and nut assembly.

7. Valves

engine valve

As we have already know that they control the inlet and exhaust air to go into and out of engine cylinder. Material used to make valves is nickel-chromium iron alloy. It can resist high temperature and have great strength. Valve could be described in two parts- valve stem and valve head. As we already know that we have got cylindrical hole in engine head for valve steam and we also have a valve seat where valve head will rest in engine head. Valve is mounted upside down means valve head is facing engine cylinder. It is so because when there would be high pressure in engine cylinder it would press the valve head against its seat in engine head and thus pressure will be maintained at best.

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8. Camshaft

Camshaft

Image source

It is a shaft with a number of cam profiles along its length. So it regulates the valves opening and closing time. It does so by pressing the end of valve stem by its cam profile. But we still need a mechanism which would return the valve back to its position once pressed by the cam profile of camshaft. We have valve spring and bucket head tappet assembly for solving this problem.

Now as we have semicircular seats for bearings of camshaft. What retains it to be fixed in engine head while rotating is cam-caps?  They hold the other half of journal bearing and have two holes in their casing through which we insert bolts and fasten them in internally threaded holes of engine head thus we hold our camshaft between the casted journal seat in engine block and cam-caps and fasten them up with long bolt.

9. Valve Spring and Tappet

Valve spring and tappet

Valve spring provides a self-returning mechanism when valve is not being pressed by camshaft. We further have bucket type tappet covering the valve spring. The purpose of tappet is to provide smooth surface for cam to press the valve spring or inlet and outlet valve. The arrangement is like we have valve spring around valve stem and tappet mounted over that spring for smooth surface and camshaft mounted just over it making the valve move up and down using its cam-profile.

10. Timing Belt

timing belt

Image source

Wonder how camshaft gets its rotational motion to regulate valves. Yeah it’s through timing belt which transmits the motion of gear mounted at crankshaft called crank-gear, to the gear mounted at camshaft. The ration of cam-gear to that of crank-gear is 2:1. So that camshaft would rotate only once in two rotations of crankshaft. Timing belt is made up either from glass-fiber or Kevlar so it does not worn-out easily.

11. Spark Plug

spark-plug

It is the parts of an engine that ignites the air-fuel mixture in the engine cylinder. It produces the spark at right time by using electrical energy of battery. The basic working principle is that when we have high electrical potential at one end and zero or negative potential at other end. And two ends being real very close to each other, it produces an electric field so strong between them that it ionizes the air molecules thus producing spark. And that is in the combustion chamber , It is made up of titanium so that it can withstand a real high temperature generated by high electric potential difference while producing spark.

12. Gasket

Gasket - Parts of engine

A wide variety of materials are used in making gaskets like Teflon, glass-fiber, silicon etc. It is generally a paper like sheet which is placed between engine block and engine head. As we have already discussed that we have both water and oil vents in engine block, so gasket gives insulation from water or oil leaking into engine cylinder or air-fuel mixture from engine cylinder leaking out from joint of engine block and engine head. Aluminum engine blocks are preferred over cast iron because it expends more on heating thus compressing the gasket more, increases the workability of gasket, thus reducing the chances of leakage.

13. Piston Rings

piston rings

Yeah we have talked about them; they reduce friction between piston and cylinder walls. What else they do?

Piston rings prevent the pressure created by burning of air-fuel mixture from leaking into crankcase. Not only that piston rings scrap down the oil from cylinder walls which is spilled by crankshaft to remove heat from piston. They also transfer heat of the piston to the cylinder walls which are being cooled by water circulation through water vents.

What u must know?

  •  In this article we have discussed the petrol engine parts with overhead cam.
  • In diesel engine all components are same except spark plug is replaced by fuel injector.
  • We have discussed the most basic parts of an engine excluding the auxiliaries like stator motor, oil pump, water pump etc.

Pankaj Mishra

Pankaj Mishra is a blogger by passion and Mechanical Engineer by profession. He has completed his B.Tech degree in mechanical engineering in the year 2015. He loves to share his knowledge and help others.

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  • September 8, 2020 at 11:01 pm
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    Wetaskiwin Online offers Wetaskiwin and District Heritage Museum History

    Daisy Nelson was born on february 3, 1906 to Emma Weflin and sally Nelson. Daisy was the first child constructed in Daysland. the year before Emma and Fred had left Wetaskiwin and moved to the newly established village of Daysland. mister. Day, who has been the mayor, Called at the family home soon after her birth. He made application for that she be named “Daisy” In honour of the newest town, And offered the deed to a village lot in trade. Her parents concurred and the child was named “Daisy Mearl Lauretta Nelson,

    The whole community celebrated Daisy’s birth coinciding as it did with the completion of a new Hotel. Many many later, A close friend of Daisy’s offered the observation that Daisy lived up to her name, indicates “cheerful and happy,

    Tosten Weflen, Eventually moved back to Wetaskiwin. In 1912 Daisy’s a good education began at Alexandra School, A building which was built by her grandpa Henry. to 1919, Fred Nelson moved his family to a Soldier’s decision Farm, In the Lucas centre. The Nelson children referred to it as “inviting Hill Farm, Daisy and her four brothers and sisters loved the sense of freedom and space of living on a farm.

    In 1923 at age of 17, Daisy hitched Cortez Lucas, Uniting two pioneer people. Cortez was born in 1899 and was the youngest son of Margaret and Frank Lucas, Who had come to the spot in 1884. Frank and his buddie, Sam Lucas were employed by the us government to assist with teaching farming methods to the Native people. A fort block residential, fort Ethier, Was erected on their land in 1885 nevertheless stands today.

    Daisy and her new partner, Settled in the Lucas area, Close to Fort Ethier and near Daisy’s parents’ home. Cortez owned a motorcar, One of only two in the region. The young couple loved mingling and often would travel out of town for dances. It was the era of vaudeville and what are the real attend the shows at the Pantages Theatre in Edmonton.

    from 1924, The to Daisy’s eight children arrived. the family unit lived in a typical farmhouse with no power or indoor plumbing. Daisy’s niece Colleen (Groves) Dickson recalls that their house had a “impressive, Loving family condition, Eventually source of electricity came to the area, And the family’s first radio had a horn speaker on a long cord. at night, Daisy would turn on the radio in the living room, And take the speaker into the kitchen where she and her children would listen to Amos and Andy.

    The Depression years overtook the family unit and, though life [url=https://moldovawomen.home.blog/]beautiful moldova[/url] was hard, The resourceful couple always managed to have their heads above water. in the 1930’s for five years straight, a family was “results in frozen out, acclaimed out, dehydrated and blown out, anything that could be produced, Processed as well as at home, was done by the Lucas family. Even white wine vinegar and soap were made at home. A truck load of home-grown wheat was ground into flour at MacEachern’s Mill and was stored in the spare room. By Daisy’s deposit, She was considered “So pleased to see the one hundred pound sacks of white No. 1 flour, One gear of No. 2, another of graham flour, Cream of wheat gluten and bran,

    Although money was in short supply, memories were abundant. Friday night card parties were favourite pastimes as well as dances in the Lucas family room. Cort and Daisy’s home became the meeting place for the younger people in the district. Wintertime saw the family planning a trip to school concerts with everyone riding in the horse drawn sleigh.

    It was of these years on the farm, While escalating her young family, That Daisy’s interest in a brief history of the area heightened. Her father in law Frank Lucas would stop in to vacation in and he would talk at length about early pioneer days. prior to, It was hard for Daisy to listen please remember all the stories that Frank told her. later in life, Daisy wished she had listened more intently so that she might more to add to the local history books. As a young adult, Daisy suffered an injury to her ears and due to her hearing difficulties she wore hearing aids manage.

    When their youngest son Larry was six yrs. old, Cort joined the army and went away to serve in battle II. currently, a family moved off the farm and made their way back to Wetaskiwin. For five and a half many years, Daisy and her eight children worked hard to pay bills. Daisy sold corsets for the Spirella Company which critical her to fit the clients in their homes. She baked bread for the family to sell and always kept a large garden. The older kids helped out by working at various jobs around town on weekends. Daisy began boarding young hockey players during the war years to add to the family’s income.

    when using the end of the war, Cort returned home and found work as a heavy materials operator, assembling roads. He began discussing the Alberta Government, agency of Highways and continued until he died in 1959. In the years when her husband was working on the roads, Daisy often frequently went with him. She was in her early 50’s when she became a widow.

    shortly after Cort’s passing, Daisy felt she was needed to manage her elderly parents. Rising to the day, Daisy sold her home and purchased her parents’ house and moved in to have them. The three lived together and Daisy continued to maintain her parents until they passed away in the late 1960’s.

    Daisy had always enjoyed growing plants and growing flowers. Her floral bouquets were often donated to friends for weddings and other occasions. in later years, She took her love of flowers and gardening to another level and joined the horticultural Society in Wetaskiwin. She often would show her gladiolus and other flowers in the farm Fair. Soon she was asked to become a judge and served as Committee Chairman for garden for the Agriculture Fair for fifteen years.

    Daisy encountered time, although her busy life, To belong to community groups and merchants. For 14 years she was secretary of Unit II of the United Church Women. In 1952 Daisy joined the Royal Purple and belonged to the provider for 22 years, right up until 1974. She served as their chaplain your late 1960’s. Her strong sense of giving something back to town was her legacy to her grandchildren. Darrol Lucas, Her son, Feels that Daisy’s example helped to shape his life in a major way. As us president, She chronicled Wetaskiwin history as well as past events from the entire regarding area. Daisy spent many happy hours gathering and corroborating historical information. Material was collected by way of interviews, correspondence, Old documents, And by phonephone. Many of the facts photos she collected were donated to the City Archives, as well as Glenbow Foundation and Provincial Archives. She received an Achievement Award from the Alberta Historical Society in 1987 for Outstanding benefits to Alberta History.

    The material compiled by Daisy became the foundation for Wetaskiwin’s “house siding 16” customs book. The book was published in 1975, A monument to the dedicated efforts of Daisy in applying for the basic material for the book. She gave generously of her valuable time and her limited financial resources to bring together the history of the area settlers in pioneer days. Daisy also made a significant contribution to the gathering of data for “Pioneer paths, previous rural Wetaskiwin.

    during 1981, Daisy was named Citizen of the year, telling the title with Marie Eikerman and Blanche Recknagle. It was a fitting reputation of Daisy for her years of garnering and preserving the stories of local seniors. The pictures and anecdotes she accumulated provided an invaluable resource [url=https://www.wattpad.com/user/MoldovaWomen]beautiful moldova[/url] to generations to come.

    how do community activities crowded into Daisy’s daily routine, It seems amazing that she still found time for a creative pastime she enjoyed doing which was quilting. She went into it with a sense of determination, As she did with every alternate aspect of her life. Quilts were made for each family member and it was said that in one year, Daisy accomplished 28 quilts. In the last step of quality, Friends would join her to assist us to tie the quilts. This afforded an chance of socializing which Daisy loved doing.

    handmade cards was another of Daisy’s favourite leisure activities. It has been said that occasionally she would have a card or two tucked away and though everyone knew, No one ever presented her about it. Daisy and her friends held their “Birthday man utd” as time passes. It became a tradition to gather to celebrate each other’s birthdays with cards, Cake and accord. kin attest to the welcoming atmosphere of Daisy’s home and how much she enjoyed entertaining.

    appearing in 1991, At the age of 84 Daisy Lucas passed away, Ending a life that was dedicated to preserving the heritage of the area for generations to come.

    with respect to Wetaskiwin Online I am pleased to offer these historical articles from the Wetaskiwin and District Museum for all our online viewers.

    Should you have feedback regarding any of these articles please contact the Museum using the content further below.

    Great care is taken by the museum staff to ensure accuracy of the info posted. However it is understood that there may be other people with details that can add to what we have or correct any inaccuracies.

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  • September 9, 2020 at 6:51 am
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    Facing jail for the web ‘jokes’

    Moscow, september 17 (Thomson Reuters platform) After posting a few feminist jokes and rants on the, Russian blogger Lyubov Kalugina hardly required to face five years in jail for inciting hatred towards men.

    Kalugina, 31, Was requested on Sept. 4 after an unidentified man complained about 12 posts she published on Russia’s most popular social media network between 2013 and 2016, Including her hope that a noisy neighbour would “Die of cancer of prostate,

    “I wish I did something serious, More advisable, As an activist to risk my the liberty for, Kalugina, Who lives in Siberia and runs two feminist social networks on the site, VKontakte, [url=https://russiangirldating.wordpress.com/2019/06/19/to-know-if-the-russian-girl-has-a-crush-on-you-see-if-she-has-these-three-signs/]russian brides[/url] Told the Thomson Reuters platform via Skype.

    Rights groups say intercourse are discriminatory as men often denigrate women, And even advocate rape along with potential victims’ contact information on Russian social networks, but they are rarely prosecuted.

    Russia’s surveillance Committee, the state body that investigates crimes, Did not answer customer requests for comment.

    Derogatory comments about women are widely accepted within the national culture, With President Vladimir Putin famously praising Russian prostitutes as the best on earth and publicly joking about rape and premenstrual pain.

    so against Kalugina echoes that of the feminist Russian punk band Pussy Riot, Three of whom were jailed in 2012 for protesting against Putin.

    One of Russia’s longest preparing leaders, He has enjoyed glowing Soviet style coverage on state TV the main source of news for most Russians for pretty much two decades.

    Kalugina’s charges come amid a wider crackdown on freedom of manifestation in Russia, With dozens punished and jailed since 2012, Using anti extremism regulation, For extensive web posts, memes, Likes and says, in rights groups.

    Nine out of ten convictions for extremist speech in Russia in 2017 were inherited to those who commented online, Said helen Kravchenko, a skilled with the SOVA Center, A protection under the law group that tracks hate crimes.

    On her personalized page, Kalugina, Who represent herself as a radical feminist, Said she hated men, stated them using obscene language, And shared a post by another woman who told me that brutal rape cases made her want to “remove” man.

    Kalugina said most posts were jokes.

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    An online petition in her support has gathered upwards of 8,000 signatures, since the hashtag feminismisnotextremism is gaining traction on social networks.

    “The internet is filled with content devoted to violence against women, told me Mari Davtyan, A lawyer with the Consortium of Women’s Nongovernmental connections.

    “There are criminal groups that call for violence against ladies and promote rape. stated, Men may ‘joke’ about these things, and ladies, visibly, really aren’t,

    Women’s rights activists point to the mushrooming of online sexist hate speech you can year’s World Cup.

    furious by Russian women dating football fans from abroad, Men set up online groups and forums to publicly shame women by posting their pictures, Linking to their social media profiles and giving them a call “Whores” and as well,as well as the “sluts,

    They better known as for women to be beaten to stop their “immoral” since “Unpatriotic” Behaviour in comments that can nonetheless be seen online, Despite warnings from social networks’ site.

    Kalugina and Davtyan said similar communities some with thousands and thousands of followers who refer to woman as “the meats” because,since “pets or animals” Have existed in VKontakte for ages.

    They through banter, Where men speak about their conquests using derogatory terms, To promoting conservatism over equality and encouraging users to post pictures and information of “immoral” Women being “failure” the parties.

    The Thomson Reuters guidance also found calls for beating, Raping and killing of women on social networks as well because of pictures and cartoons depicting abuse.

    Kalugina said she has reported abusive content to the law, But she believes no criminal cases were marketed.

    Activists say women’s rights more broadly will be eroded in Russia, Pointing to last year’s decriminalisation of domestic assault, Making it an admin offence punishable by a fine, Raising fears of ladies being killed at home.

    with females facing so many challenges in Russia, Kalugina said the justice would not deter her from activism.

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