Types of Supercharger in Automobile

What is Supercharger?

It is used for pressurizes the air at intake or increase the air density which supplied to internal combustion, more air means more oxygen allowing it to burn more fuel and to get more power by increase in air during the combustion of an engine. Here we will learn about different types of supercharger.

 All the superchargercan be powered mechanically by means of belt, shaft or chain connected to engine’s crankshaft. Operate in similar way to turbocharger, but are in fact less efficient, where a turbocharger get energy from exhaust gases to power its air compressor, a super charger runs on engine belt. This device adds an average of 40 percent more horsepower, 30 percent more torque and 50 percent more air into the engine.

 

Types of Supercharger

There are three types of supercharger used in automobiles Roots Style, twin screw and centrifugal supercharger. Root style is oldest among them. Centrifugal type uses an impeller whereas other two types are uses different meshing lobes with rotors and they look like same, there is no much physical difference between them in design and construction. Air intake to manifold is different for each of them.

 

1.  Roots Type Supercharger:

Types of Supercharger - roots types
As the rotating meshing lobes spin in different direction right side lobe in clock wise and left one in anti-clock wise. Air comes from outside through the inlet fill side, the two rotors can trap the air by these lobes and actually pushes the air down towards the discharge outlet. Each time it compresses the fixed amount of air at outlet during each rotation. Air gets compressed below the rotary lobes while inlet only sucks the air. Eventually pushing it more pressurized air at the inlet manifold.

Pros:

  • Excellent reliability.
  • Low rpm big boost; at low engine speed it can produce greater boost.
  • Simple in design.

Cons:

  • Creates lots of heat.
  • Heavy in weight and due to bigger in size it can comes out of the hood.
  • Least efficient.

 

2. Twin-Screw Supercharger:

Types of Supercharger - twin screw type

 

In these types of supercharger, two spiral rotors have screw shape and worm gear which pushes air towards to inlet manifold. Rotation of rotors are different from the roots type supercharger , the direction of right side of rotor is take anti-clockwise and left side rotor in clockwise direction. Air get start suction at fill side and convert it to pressurized air due to rotation of both the screw types rotor lobes. Air compresses in rotor housing because of conical taper and air moves from fill side to discharge side.

Pros:

  • It provides Instant boost.

Cons:

  • Noisy, it means it more noise during its working.

 

 

3. Centrifugal Supercharger:

Types of Supercharger -centrifugal type

 

Its look like a turbocharger; when air sucks through impeller having high speed and low pressure thrown towards to diffuser can converts into low speed and high pressure. Impeller and diffuser blades are different in construction. From diffuser air moves towards to volute casing and air pressure further increased. This high pressure air goes to outlet and then inlet manifold of the engine.

Pros:

  • High thermal efficiency and creates less heat.
  • Small and compact in size.

Cons:

  • Bad low rpm boost; there is no fixed amount per revolution.

 

For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

 

 

 

After Supercharging Process:

As the air is compressed at the end of supercharger, air gets hotter, this means that it loses its density so air molecules are less and cannot expand as much during the explosion in combustion chamber. For a supercharger to work at efficiency, the compressed air needs to cool down for more air molecules. At the discharge unit compressed air must be cooled before it enters the intake manifold. The intercooler is responsible for this cooling process. Due to intercooler reduction in air temperature, the density of the air increases, which makes more oxygen entering the combustion chamber.In this article we have learnt about types of supercharger used in automobile for boost of engine. if you find anything missing or incorrect then comment us. If you enjoyed the article than don’t forget to like and share on Facebook and Google+.

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